Muhammad in the Bible
The Quran states that God sent at least one messenger to every community (10:47):
وَلِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولٌ فَإِذَا جَآءَ رَسُولُهُمْ قُضِىَ بَيْنَهُم بِٱلْقِسْطِ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ
(10:47) A messenger is assigned to each community. Then, once their messenger comes, justice will be served equitably between them and they will not be wronged.
Messengers and prophets form a community and support each other (3:81) which is abundantly reflected in the prophetic message of the Bible and the Quran. This is even more obvious when it comes to prophetic messages regarding the advent of Muhammad because he is the seal of the prophets (33:40), meaning that he was blessed to deliver the last divine scripture revealed to mankind.
The primary purpose of this study is, God willing, to invite Jews, Christians and any person seeking the truth to investigate those prophecies in the light of the Bible and the Quran with sincerity. This topic is equally important for Muslims to strengthen their faith and for them to convincingly present the message of the Quran to Jews and Christians who are held in great respect being called “people of the Book” (3:113, 3:75).
Biblical prophecies related to the advent of Muhammad, the Quran and the practice of Islam is a surprisingly extensive subject. Our goal is not to attempt to present all aspects which would be a very arduous task, but to present in an efficient and concise manner the most compelling proofs.
Table of contents:
1. Deuteronomy 18:18: A prophet like Moses
2. Muhammad is mentioned by name in the Song of Songs, by Solomon
3. The pilgrimage to Mecca is described in Psalm 84
4. Isaiah 60: Mecca, The new Jerusalem
5. The prophecy of Isaiah 29:10-12: The revelation of the Quran to an illiterate prophet
6. Where was the book revealed to an illiterate prophet going to be revealed?
6.1 Arabia, Mount Sela and the city of Medina
6.2 Mount Paran and the city of Mecca
7. Did Jesus prophesy the advent of Muhammad?
1. Deuteronomy 18:18: A prophet like Moses
One of the major prophecies announcing Muhammad is mentioned in the book of Deuteronomy, which is part of the Torah and was revealed to Moses:
Deuteronomy 18:18: I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, one like you (O Moses), and I will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him.
Translation: A faithful version.
We read that a prophet will be raised among “their brethren”, that is to say among the brethren of the Israelites. It is a historical fact that Arabs, and therefore Muhammad, are the brothers of the Israelites through Abraham and Ismael.
Muhammad is “Like you” (O Moses) because like Moses who received the Torah (one of the meanings of which is “the law”), he received a divine revelation (the Quran) which also contains a new divine law. By contrast, Jesus “did not come to abolish the law or the prophets”, “but to fulfill them” according to Matthew 5:17.
Another powerful argument in favor of Muhammad is that the prophet never speaks on his own volition in the Quran. God literally “puts His words in his mouth” as said in Deuteronomy 18:18.
An example which illustrates this fact is that 333 times exactly, God commands to Muhammad to recite entire sentences by commanding him to say: “qul” (say!), followed by the sentence He wants him to proclaim.
قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ
(112:1) Say !(Qul) [O Muhammad]: “He, Allah, is One. (112:2) God, the Absolute. (112:3) Never does He beget, nor is He begotten. (112:4) None equals Him!”
The prophet had absolutely no other choice but to obey and repeat to his people word for word what God had commanded him to say. He had no personal input whatsoever regarding the content of the revelation and God literally “put His word in his mouth”.
To give a visual idea, 333 times “say!” (قل) in the Quran looks like this:
2:80 (قل); 2:91 (قل); 2:93 (قل); 2:94 (قل); 2:97 (قل); 2:111 (قل); 2:120 (قل); 2:135 (قل); 2:139 (قل); 2:140 (قل); 2:142 (قل); 2:189 (قل); 2:215 (قل); 2:217 (قل); 2:219 (قل +قل); 2:220 (قل); 2:222 (قل); 3:12 (قل); 3:15 (قل); 3:20 (قل + قل); 3:26 (قل); 3:29 (قل); 3:31 (قل); 3:32 (قل); 3:61 (قل); 3:64 (قل); 3:73 (قل +قل); 3:84 (قل); 3:93 (قل); 3:95 (قل); 3:98 (قل); 3:99 (قل); 3:119 (قل); 3:154 (قل +قل); 3:165 (قل); 3:168 (قل); 3:183 (قل); 4:63 (قل); 4:77 (قل); 4:78 (قل); 4:127 (قل); 4:176 (قل); 5:4 (قل); 5:17 (قل); 5:18 (قل); 5:59 (قل); 5:60 (قل); 5:68 (قل); 5:76 (قل); 5:77 (قل); 5:100 (قل); 6:11 (قل); 6:12 (قل +قل); 6:14 (قل +قل); 6:15 (قل); 6:19 (قل +قل + قل +قل); 6:37 (قل); 6:40 (قل); 6:46 (قل); 6:47 (قل); 6:50 (قل +قل); 6:54 (قل); 6:56 (قل +قل); 6:57 (قل); 6:58 (قل); 6:63 (قل); 6:64 (قل); 6:65 (قل); 6:66 (قل); 6:71 (قل +قل); 6:90 (قل); 6:91 (قل +قل); 6:109 (قل); 6:135 (قل); 6:143 (قل); 6:144 (قل); 6:145 (قل); 6:147 (قل); 6:148 (قل); 6:149 (قل); 6:150 (قل); 6:151 (قل); 6:158 (قل); 6:161 (قل); 6:162 (قل); 6:164 (قل); 7:28 (قل); 7:29 (قل); 7:32 (قل +قل); 7:33 (قل); 7:158 (قل); 7:187 (قل +قل); 7:188 (قل); 7:195 (قل); 7:203 (قل); 8:1 (قل); 8:38 (قل); 8:70 (قل); 9:24 (قل); 9:51 (قل); 9:52 (قل); 9:53 (قل); 9:61 (قل); 9:64 (قل); 9:65 (قل); 9:81 (قل); 9:83 (قل); 9:94 (قل); 9:105 (قل); 9:129 (قل); 10:15 (قل); 10:16 (قل); 10:18 (قل); 10:20 (قل); 10:21 (قل); 10:31 (قل +قل); 10:34 (قل +قل); 10:35 (قل +قل); 10:38 (قل); 10:41 (قل); 10:49 (قل); 10:50 (قل); 10:53 (قل); 10:58 (قل); 10:59 (قل +قل); 10:69 (قل); 10:101 (قل); 10:102 (قل); 10:104 (قل); 10:108 (قل); 11:13 (قل); 11:35 (قل); 11:121 (قل); 12:108 (قل); 13:16 (قل +قل +قل +قل +قل); 13:27 (قل); 13:30 (قل); 13:33 (قل); 13:36 (قل); 13:43 (قل); 14:30 (قل); 14:31 (قل); 15:89 (قل); 16:102 (قل); 17:23 (قل); 17:24 (قل); 17:28 (قل); 17:42 (قل); 17:50 (قل); 17:51 (قل +قل); 17:53 (قل); 17:56 (قل); 17:80 (قل); 17:81 (قل); 17:84 (قل); 17:85 (قل); 17:88 (قل); 17:93 (قل); 17:95 (قل); 17:96 (قل); 17:100 (قل); 17:107 (قل); 17:110 (قل); 17:111 (قل); 18:22 (قل); 18:24 (قل); 18:26 (قل); 18:29 (قل); 18:83 (قل); 18:103 (قل); 18:109 (قل); 18:110 (قل); 19:75 (قل); 20:105 (قل); 20:114 (قل); 20:135 (قل); 21:24 (قل); 21:42 (قل); 21:45 (قل); 21:108 (قل); 21:109 (قل); 21:112 (قل); 22:49 (قل); 22:68 (قل); 22:72 (قل); 23:28 (قل); 23:29 (قل); 23:84 (قل); 23:85 (قل); 23:86 (قل); 23:87 (قل); 23:88 (قل); 23:89 (قل); 23:93 (قل); 23:97 (قل); 23:118 (قل); 24:30 (قل); 24:31 (قل); 24:53 (قل); 24:54(قل); 25:6(قل); 25:15(قل); 25:57(قل); 25:77(قل); 26:216(قل); 27:59 (قل); 27:64 (قل); 27:65 (قل); 27:69 (قل); 27:72 (قل); 27:92 (قل); 27:93 (قل); 28:49 (قل); 28:71 (قل); 28:72 (قل); 28:85 (قل); 29:20 (قل); 29:50 (قل); 29:52 (قل); 29:63 (قل); 30:42 (قل); 31:25 (قل); 32:11 (قل); 32:29 (قل); 33:16 (قل); 33:17 (قل); 33:28 (قل); 33:59 (قل); 33:63 (قل); 34:3 (قل); 34:22 (قل); 34:24 (قل +قل); 34:25 (قل); 34:26 (قل); 34:27 (قل); 34:30 (قل); 34:36 (قل); 34:39 (قل); 34:46 (قل); 34:47 (قل); 34:48 (قل); 34:49 (قل); 34:50 (قل); 35:40 (قل); 36:79 (قل); 37:18 (قل); 38:65(قل); 38:67 (قل); 38:86(قل); 39:8(قل); 39:9 (قل); 39:10 (قل); 39:11(قل); 39:13 (قل); 39:14 (قل); 39:15 (قل); 39:38 (قل +قل); 39:39 (قل); 39:43 (قل); 39:44 (قل); 39:46 (قل); 39:53 (قل); 39:64 (قل); 40:66 (قل); 41:6 (قل); 41:9 (قل); 41:13 (قل); 41:44 (قل); 41:52 (قل); 42:15 (قل); 42:23 (قل); 43:81 (قل); 43:89 (قل); 45:14 (قل); 45:26 (قل); 46:4 (قل); 46:8 (قل); 46:9 (قل); 46:10 (قل); 48:11 (قل); 48:15 (قل); 48:16 (قل); 49:14 (قل); 49:16 (قل); 49:17 (قل); 52:31 (قل); 56:49 (قل); 62:6 (قل); 62:8 (قل); 62:11 (قل); 64:7 (قل); 67:23 (قل); 67:24 (قل); 67:26 (قل); 67:28 (قل); 67:29 (قل); 67:30 (قل); 72:1 (قل); 72:20 (قل); 72:21 (قل); 72:22 (قل); 72:25 (قل); 79:18 (قل); 109:1 (قل); 112:1 (قل); 113:1 (قل); 114:1 (قل) = 333 times Say! (“قل” = Qul !).
The divine command “Qul!” occurs in 307 verses which represents approximately 5% of all 6236 numbered verses of the Quran.
I myself will call to account anyone who does not listen to my words that the prophet speaks in my name.
This verse indicates that the prophet prophesied was going to proclaim “God’s words”, meaning a divine revelation, in the name of God. It is truly striking that the first verse of the Quran starts precisely with the words “In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful” (1:1), expression which is repeated 113 times at the beginning of every single sura, except sura 9, and 114 times (19×6) overall.
قُلْ يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ إِنِّى رَسُولُ ٱللَّهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا ٱلَّذِى لَهُۥ مُلْكُ
ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ لَآ إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ يُحْىِۦ وَيُمِيتُ فَـَٔامِنُوا۟ بِٱللَّهِ
وَرَسُولِهِ ٱلنَّبِىِّ ٱلْأُمِّىِّ ٱلَّذِى يُؤْمِنُ بِٱللَّهِ وَكَلِمَٰتِهِۦ وَٱتَّبِعُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ
(7:158) Say: “O mankind, verily, I (Muhammad) am God’s messenger to all of you. He is the one to whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, there is no god except He. He grants life and death.” Therefore, you shall believe in God and His messenger, the gentile prophet, who believes in God and His words. Follow him, that you may be guided.
The above verse uses the same language as Deuteronomy 18:18-19 where we read “18 I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, one like you (O Moses), and I will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him.19 I myself will call to account anyone who does not listen to my words that the prophet speaks in my name.”
2. Muhammad is mentioned by name in the Song of Songs, by Solomon
The name of the holy prophet “Muhammad” occurs literally in the Bible in the original Hebrew language in the “Shir haShirim” (שיר השירים = Song of Songs) 5:16, also known as “the Song of Solomon”. The Song of Songs describes a love story that has been interpreted by many Jewish and Christian scholars as an allegory prophesying the advent of a messianic figure, which explains why it is universally accepted in the canon of Holy scriptures. Jews will typically say that it either describes Solomon or the Messiah, and Christians claim that it refers to Jesus, the Messiah. It prophesies in a very poetic way the advent of a prophet by providing the very detailed physical description of a man:
For instance, Song of Songs 5:10 reads: “My beloved is white and ruddy, chief among ten thousand.” Given the fact that, as we are going to see, Muhammad is mentioned by name in Song of Songs 5:16, Muslims interpret this verse as a prophecy announcing his peaceful conquest of Mecca on December 629 or January 630 CE, when he led an army of “ten thousand men” (reference: Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri (1996), The Sealed Nectar: Biography of the Noble Prophet, Riyadh, p.391). This is one reference among many and it is a very well documented historical fact.
The following Quranic verse describes that victory:
وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى كَفَّ أَيْدِيَهُمْ عَنكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ عَنْهُم بِبَطْنِ مَكَّةَ مِنۢ
بَعْدِ أَنْ أَظْفَرَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرًا
(48:24) He is the one who restrained their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah, after having granted you victory over them, and God witnessed everything you did.
Song of Songs 5:11-12 says: “his head is like gold, pure gold, his locks are wavy, and black as a raven”. Verse 15 continues: “His appearance is like Lebanon. His eyes are like doves by the water streams, washed in milk, mounted like jewels.” The magnificent description of that illustrious man ends in 5:16 by saying:
Hebrew: חִכּוֹ, מַמְתַקִּים, וְכֻלּוֹ, מַחֲמַדִּים; זֶה דוֹדִי וְזֶה רֵעִי, בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם.
English: His mouth is sweetness itself; yea, he is altogether lovely. This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughters of Jerusalem.
Just like early manuscripts of the Quran, ancient Hebrew used to be written without vowels. The Hebrew word translated as “he is altogether lovely” (מַחֲמַדִּים) is correctly pronounced as “Muhamad-im” according to the Hebrew/English dictionary by Ben Yehuda. Ben Yehuda (1858-1922) is the author of the first modern Hebrew dictionary and he was a major figure regarding the creation of the Academy of the Hebrew language which still exists today. The ending letter “im” signals a plural of majesty typically applied to a name, just like “Eloh-im” which is the plural of majesty widely used for “God” in the Bible as well as many other names.
Note: “Elohim” most obviously belongs to the same root word as “elah” (god) in Arabic, “Allah” being a contraction of “Al Elah”, The God, demonstrating the fact that He is “The [one and only] God”.
Another example taken from the Bible is Mizraim (plural of majesty), who was the son of Ham and gave his name to Egypt (مِصْر = “Misr” in Arabic) and was the younger brother of Cush and elder brother of Phut and Canaan, whose families together made up the Hamite branch of Noah's descendants. According to Genesis 10:13-14, Mizraim's sons were Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim out of whom came Philistim, and Caphtorim. We have here a very impressive list of names ending with the plural of majesty “im”.
If we now discard the plural of majesty in “Muhamad-im” (by definition a name), we are left with the letters “מחמד” [Mem, Chet (or Het), Mem, Daled]. In other terms, once we transcribe these letters into Arabic, we get “MHMD” (د م ح م), which are the four letters which compose “Muhammad” (مُحَمَّد). What we are stating here is merely a fact that no one can deny, not even the most ardent opponents of Islam.
It is unmistakable from the context of the verses that the expressions “his head is like gold”, “His appearance is like Lebanon” (an Arab country), “His eyes are like doves” and “His mouth is sweetness itself” refer to a man. The question is who is the man designated through “Muhamad-im”, by definition a name because it ends with the plural of majesty “im”? The answer is self-explanatory and merely a matter of sincerity.
Jews and Christians typically claim that “he is altogether lovely” (מַחֲמַדִּים) should be pronounced “mahamad-im” or “machamad-im” [“Cha” (חֲ) is the equivalent of “Ha” (حَ) in Arabic like in Muhammad] instead of “Muhamad-im” to attempt to deny that Muhammad is indeed mentioned by name in the Song of Songs.
Truth prevails over falsehood regarding the pronunciation “muhamadim” because it is documented by no other than a Jewish rabbi in the recitation of the Song of Songs on mechon-mamre.org, a Jewish website dedicated to Holy scriptures: http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt3005.htm
Click on the link “Listen to this chapter in Hebrew” at the top of the page and you will hear at 2 minutes and 31 seconds the word “Muhammadim” (with a double “M” like in “Muhammad”!). This is how the truth manifests itself, despite the fact that many Jews and Christian scholars desperately try to hide it.
I recommend that you watch the following amazing video: https://youtu.be/cur_6aYs_7k regarding Song of Song 5:16 and the pronunciation “muhammadim”.
We will also add that “Google
Translate” vocalizes the full Hebrew word “מַחֲמַדִּים”
translated as “he is altogether lovely”
In other words, Song of Solomon 5:16 should be read as follows:
“His mouth is sweetness itself; yea, he is Muhammad-im (a name in the plural of majesty "im") This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughters of Jerusalem.”.
Therefore, and contrary to what Jews and Christians scholars claim, Muhammad is indeed mentioned by name in the Hebrew Bible, where he was prophesied by the prophet Solomon.
وَءَامِنُوا۟ بِمَآ أَنزَلْتُ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَكُمْ وَلَا تَكُونُوٓا۟ أَوَّلَ
كَافِرٍۭ بِهِۦ وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا۟ بِـَٔايَٰتِى ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا وَإِيَّٰىَ فَٱتَّقُونِ
(2:41) You shall believe in what I have revealed, which confirms [the revelations] in your possession; and do not be the first to disbelieve in it. Do not trade away My revelations for a small price. Me alone you shall fear!
وَلَا تَلْبِسُوا۟ ٱلْحَقَّ بِٱلْبَٰطِلِ وَتَكْتُمُوا۟ ٱلْحَقَّ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
(2:42) Do not confound the truth with falsehood, nor shall you conceal the truth while you know.
On a personal note, the Songs of Songs by Solomon has a particularly strong meaning for me because 3 years before I became a Muslim, I had to comment The Song of Solomon including verse 5:16 for my oral exam in French when I graduated from High School. The text was chosen by the teacher conducting the test, and I had strictly no idea at the time that this magnificent piece of literature prophesied Muhammad. I retrospectively see it as a sign from God that, by His infinite Grace, I was destined to become a Muslim and bear witness to the truth of Islam.
Note: Muhammad is mentioned by name in the Quran in 3:144, 33:40, 47:2 and 48:29.
3. The pilgrimage to Mecca is described in Psalm 84
Psalm 84 (New Revised Standard Version)
1 How lovely is your dwelling place, Lord Almighty! 2 My soul yearns, even faints, for the courts of the Lord; my heart and my flesh cry out for the living God. 3 Even the sparrow has found a home, and the swallow a nest for herself, where she may have her young - a place near your altar, Lord Almighty, my King and my God. 4 Blessed are those who dwell in your house; they are ever praising you. 5 Blessed are those whose strength is in you, whose hearts are set on pilgrimage. 6 As they pass through the Valley of Baka, they make it a place of springs; the autumn rains also cover it with pools. 7 They go from strength to strength, till each appears before God in Zion. 8 Hear my prayer, Lord God Almighty; listen to me, God of Jacob. 9 Look on our shield, O God; look with favor on your anointed one. 10 Better is one day in your courts than a thousand elsewhere; I would rather be a doorkeeper in the house of my God than dwell in the tents of the wicked. 11 For the Lord God is a sun and shield; the Lord bestows favor and honor; no good thing does he withhold from those whose walk is blameless. 12 Lord Almighty, blessed is the one who trusts in you.
Psalm 84 identifies a place of pilgrimage (5 Blessed are those whose strength is in you, whose hearts are set on pilgrimage.) which takes place in “the Valley of Baka”.
The name of the temple dedicated to God is called exactly the same in Psalm 84 as in the Quran: “The house” (bêt = house = bayt in Arabic):
Psalm 84:4: 4 Blessed are those who dwell in your house [בֵיתֶ֑ךָ = bê-te-ka = baytika (Arabic) = Your house); they are ever praising you.
Psalm 84:10: 10 I would rather be a doorkeeper in the house of my God (אֱלֹהַ֑י בְּבֵ֣ית = be-bêt élohay = in the house of my God) than dwell in the tents of the wicked.
Note: Please note the striking similarity in “the house of my God” between Hebrew (אֱלֹהַ֑י בְּבֵ֣ית = be bêt élohay) and Arabic (في بيت الهي = fî bayti elahee).
إِنَّ أَوَّلَ بَيْتٍ وُضِعَ لِلنَّاسِ لَلَّذِى بِبَكَّةَ مُبَارَكًا وَهُدًى لِّلْعَٰلَمِينَ
(3:96) Verily, the very first HOUSE [bayti] established for mankind is the one located at Baccah.
فِيهِ ءَايَٰتٌۢ بَيِّنَٰتٌ مَّقَامُ إِبْرَٰهِيمَ وَمَن دَخَلَهُۥ كَانَ ءَامِنًا وَلِلَّهِ عَلَى ٱلنَّاسِ
حِجُّ ٱلْبَيْتِ مَنِ ٱسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَنِىٌّ عَنِ ٱلْعَٰلَمِينَ
(3:97) In it are clear signs, the place where Abraham stood (“Maqâmi Ibrahîma”), and whoever enters it will be safe. For the sake of God, it is incumbent upon mankind to perform the pilgrimage to the HOUSE (al bayti, i.e. the Ka’bah) for whoever can undertake the journey to it; and whoever disbelieves, then God is in no need of the universe.
Anyone familiar with the Arabic Quran knows that the word “the house” (الْبَيْت, al bayt) repeatedly refers to the Ka’bah in the Quran (2:125, 2:127, 2:158, 3:96-97, etc…), just like we witnessed in Psalm 84 where the word “house” (בֵ֣ית = bêt) occurs twice (verses 4 and 10) clearly referring to God’s temple.
We also read in Psalm 84:
6 As they pass through the Valley of Baka, they make it a place of springs; the autumn rains also cover it with pools.
One of the possible meanings of “Baka” in Hebrew is “dry”. Therefore we can read the verse as “6 As they pass through the dry Valley, they make it a place of springs;…”. Several translations render the meaning of “dry valley” such as the Contemporary English Version and Good New Translation. It is an undeniable fact that the valley of Mecca is a dry valley, as mentioned in the Quran itself (see 14:37). The “place of springs” relates to the well of Zamzam located inside the sacred mosque of Mecca. It is very well documented historically that the Holy City has frequently been flooded during the autumn season as a result of its climate and geography.
The following picture shows an
autumnal flood at the sacred mosque:
Typical Autumnal flood in Makkah before dams were constructed
Finally, we will mention that “They go from strength to strength ” in Psalm 84:7 is translated completely differently by A. Alem, a comparative religion Muslim scholar (see the French book entitled “Muhammad in the Bible and Jesus in the Quran”, A.Alem, La ruche editions, 2007) which explains that a more correct translation is “They walk from a height to a height”, referring to the pilgrimage ritual known as “sa’ee” (سَعِي) where pilgrims walk back and forth between the knolls (or heights) of “Al Safa” and “Al Marwah” and go around them (2:158).
Such a translation is confirmed for instance by the French translation “Bible de Jérusalem 1973” (Bible of Jerusalem 1973): 8 “Ils marchent de hauteur en hauteur, Dieu leur apparaît dans Sion.” which can be translated as “The walk from a height to a height, God appears to them in Sion.”
I also found the following Christian translation of verse 7 of Psalm 84; the translation is not named but it confirms the meaning translated by A. Alem and the Bible of Jerusalem 1973:
They will climb from height to height,…
Knolls of Al Safa and Al Marwah, located at proximity of the Holy Ka’bah
Psalm 84 is therefore one of many passages of the Old and New Testament which bears witness to the veracity of Islam. The city of “Baka” or “Bakkah”, which is the old name for Mecca, is thus documented both in the Bible and the Quran as the city and location where the pilgrimage instituted by Abraham by God’s grace takes place.
We will also note that David, to whom God revealed the Psalms, went to the desert of Paran according to the Book of Samuel:
1 Samuel 25:1: Now Samuel died, and all Israel assembled and mourned for him; and they buried him at his home in Ramah. Then David moved down into the Desert of Paran.
The desert of Paran is the desert of Arabia and Mecca where Hagar and Ismael were abandoned by Abraham and were saved by the miraculous appearance of a spring (the well of zam-zam, located right next to the Ka’bah) and where Ismael lived afterwards (Genesis 21:19-22); It is therefore not surprising that Psalm 84 describes the pilgrimage to Baca in the light of the fact that the Bible documents David’s trip to the desert of Paran at the death of Samuel. We will get back later to the extreme importance of the desert of Paran in Biblical prophecies related to the advent of Muhammad and the Quran.
4. Isaiah 60 : Mecca, The new Jérusalem
Just like Psalm 84, Isaiah 60 describes a pilgrimage where tribes converge to a city commonly called “the new Jerusalem” by Christians.
Isaiah 60 (Translation: New International Version):
1 Arise, shine, for your light has come, and the glory of the Lord rises upon you. 2 See, darkness covers the earth and thick darkness is over the peoples, but the Lord rises upon you and his glory appears over you. 3 Nations will come to your light, and kings to the brightness of your dawn. 4 Lift up your eyes and look about you: All assemble and come to you; your sons come from afar, and your daughters are carried on the hip. 5 Then you will look and be radiant, your heart will throb and swell with joy; the wealth on the seas will be brought to you, to you the riches of the nations will come.
6 Herds of camels will cover your land, young camels of Midian and Ephah.
Madian was the son of Abraham, Epha (arab tribe of Epha, one of the sons of Madian, Genesis 25:1-6). The verse unquestionably describes Arab tribes.
Above: Slab with an inscription about the political activities of the kings of Sheba. Ancient South Arabian script appears. From Yemen, 2nd century CE. Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul.
It proves in a definitive manner that the kingdom of Sheba refers to Southern Arabia, which Jews and Christians have often tried to deny to this day because it favors Islamic prophecies in the Bible such as Isaiah 60.
Isaiah 60:6 (continued): …And all from Sheba will come, bearing gold and incense and proclaiming the praise of the Lord.
Unquestionably, Sheba refers to modern day Yemen, the south of Arabia. Once again, the prophecy mentions Arabs converging to that city of pilgrimage.
7 All Kedar’s flocks will be gathered to you, the rams of Nebaioth will serve you; they will be accepted as offerings on my altar, and I will adorn my glorious temple.
The above refers to the ritual of sacrifice during the hajj and the temple (בֵ֣ית = Bêt = house, bayt in Arabic) is the Ka’bah, as indicated in the previous section. Kedar was the second son of Ismael, Nebaioth the first (Genesis 25:13). We are dealing once again with Arab tribes.