Hajj and 'Umrah in the Quran
Throughout their entire lifetime, Muslims perform the ritual prayer facing the Sacred Mosque of Mecca, pay their due share of charity (zakât), and fast during the sacred month of Ramadan. The ultimate accomplishment in the life of a Muslim is for whoever can afford it to perform the pilgrimage to the Sacred Mosque (2:196). God established the Ka’bah at the time of Adam and Eve (3:96) which He designed for us to visit the place where our parents initiated our history, and to worship Him in unison (2:125, 22:27). The Hajj demonstrates that we all are one and the same family and belong to one and the same race: The human race. Our various ethnicities magnificently enhance the beauty of the human race as a whole and draw pure Muslims towards each other instead of dividing them (49:13). There is no racism in pure Islam.
The ‘Umrah and the Hajj, just like all rituals of Islam, were revealed to Abraham about 4000 years ago (22:26-27). Prophets of the Bible either performed the Hajj to Mecca, as the Quran makes it clear for Moses (28:27), or at least knew about it when they could not perform it anymore when the Arabs desecrated the Ka’bah by falling into idol worship. Muhammad was eventually sent to purify the Sacred Mosque, destroy their baseless idols and reinstate the pure rituals of Islam.
Tragically, history repeats itself and the Muslim world has “discarded the Quran” and its pure teachings, as stated by our holy prophet Muhammad himself (25:30). Because traditional Muslims follow laws derived from hadiths, that is to say laws other than God and His revelations (45:6, 77:50, see “hadiths the cancer of Islam”), they have lost touch with the Quranic message and rituals and as a consequence often fall into idol worship, which we will see takes place even at the Sacred Mosque.
We are going to explain the rituals of the ‘Umrah and the Hajj in the light of the Quran, starting with the correct meaning of entering the state of Ihram, and explain what kind of corruption affects the rituals nowadays:
Sunni and Shia Islam rely on hadiths to determine the sacred months (Bukhary Vol 4, book 54, Hadith 419, Al Tabari vol. 9, pp. 112-113) and believe they are the 7th, 11th, 12th, 1st of the lunar year; more recently, the sect of the Submitters stated that they are the 12th, 1st and 2nd and 3rd: We are going to see in the light of the Quran that both interpretations are wrong. We will first show that God decreed 4 continuous sacred months (9:2, 9:5) to perform the Hajj, starting with Ramadan (the 9th lunar month) and ending with Zul Hijjah (the 12th month), as outlined in suras 2 and 9. The fact it has been reduced to five days in traditional Islam (from the 8th to the 12th of Dhul Hijjah) is in complete contradiction with the Quran (2:197, 9:36) and the reality of modern demography.
- Lots of pilgrims fall into blatant idol worship at the Ka’bah, some almost fighting with each other trying to touch or kiss the black stone while performing the Quranic ritual of circling the Ka’bah, known as “tawaf” (2:125, 22:26). Similarly, they visit the tomb of the prophet in Medina right in between the ‘Umrah and the Hajj breaking the continuous sequence between them decreed in 2:196.
- The ritual of “stoning satan” and staying overnight in Muzdalifah are not mentioned in the Quran either, and are therefore not part of the pure Islamic ritual by definition (45:6, 77:50).
- We will also see that the order of rituals has slightly been altered as we will see that the two day spiritual retreat that ends the Hajj takes place at the sacred Masjid, right after the final tawaf, and not in the plain of ‘Arafat.
1. What is the Hajj?
Definition of Hajj: The root “hajja” (حج) carries the meaning of aiming at something, “to go on a pilgrimage”, or “to converge” to a specific destination for a pilgrimage. The word “al Hajj” means literally “the pilgrimage”, and more specifically it refers to what is called in the Quran “the greater pilgrimage” (9:3): The pilgrimage to the valley of Mecca to three specific locations (The sacred Masjid in Mecca, mount ‘Arafat and Al Mash’ar Al Haram) where specific rituals are to be performed, and which we are going to explain in the light of the Quran.
The message of the Quran regarding the Hajj contradicts the teachings of traditional Sunni and Shia Islam in many ways, for instance concerning the time of Hajj, as we will see that it can be performed during the last four consecutive months of the lunar year (from Ramadan to Zul Hijjah). They are known in the Quran as the four sacred months during which fighting is prohibited.
The singular word “Hajj” occurs 11 times, in the Quran in verses 2:158 (1), 2:189 (1), 2:196 (3), 2:197 (3), 3:97 (1), 9:3 (1) and 22:27 (1).
2. What is the ‘Umrah?
Definition of ‘Umrah: The root word “’Amara” (عمر) means “to inhabit”, “dwell”, “repair”, “cultivate”, “make a sacred visitation”, “populate”.
The word “’Umrah” refers specifically to the visitation of the Sacred Mosque of Mecca, and can, by default, be performed at anytime during the year since the Quran mentions conjointly “Hajj and ‘Umrah” in 2:196, but only decrees a time restriction for the Hajj in 2:197. Two specific rituals are performed at the Sacred Mosque during ‘Umrah: (1) The Tawaf (circling the Kaaba, see 2:125, 22:26, 22:29), which is mandatory, and (2) the Sa’ee (going back and forth between the knolls of al Safa and al Marwah), which is optional.
(2:158) Indeed, [the knolls of] Al Safa and Al Marwah are among the rites inspired by God. Therefore, whoever performs the Hajj to the [Sacred] House, or performs ‘Umrah, there is no blame upon him to go around the two of them. And whoever volunteers for more, then God is indeed Appreciative, Omniscient.
The word “’Umrah” occurs three times in the Quranic text in 2:158 (1) and 2:196 (2).
3. Difference between the Hajj and the ‘Umrah
The rituals of the Hajj and the ‘Umrah are identical, except that the Hajj includes several additional steps:
- Both the ‘Umrah and the Hajj are mandatory rituals (2:196).
- The ‘Umrah only takes place at the Sacred Mosque, while the Hajj starts at mount ‘Arafat (2:198) and ends at the Sacred Mosque.
- Unlike during the hajj, it is not required to enter in a state of ihrâm if the ‘Umrah is performed outside of the four sacred months. It is otherwise mandatory when the ‘Umrah and the Hajj are performed in a continuous sequence during the Hajj season.
- There is no hunting prohibition when the ‘Umrah is performed outside of the four sacred months. Hunting is otherwise prohibited for the ‘Umrah and the Hajj during the sacred months (5:95).
- According to 2:158, the Sa’ee (walking between the knolls of Al Safa and Al Marwah) can be performed both during the Hajj and the ‘Umrah, although it is not a mandatory ritual in either of them, as we will explain later (2:158).
- The Tawaf (circling the Ka’bah) is a mandatory ritual which has to be performed both during the ‘Umrah and the Hajj (2:125, 22:26, 22:29).
- The ‘Umrah must be performed right before the Hajj during the four sacred months (2:196).
- The Quran defines a time restriction for the Hajj (2:196, 9:36, during the four sacred months), but not for the ‘Umrah, which can by default be performed at anytime during the year. Despite the fact that the ‘Umrah must be performed right before the Hajj during the sacred months, the word “‘Umrah” is mentioned after the word “Hajj” in 2:158 and 2:196, because, unlike the Hajj, it can be performed at any time during the year. The order of words underscores that they are distinct rituals.
- There is no ritual of sacrifice during the ‘Umrah, even if performed outside of the sacred months. The sacrifice is exclusively part of the Hajj.
- The Hajj ends with a two day retreat (or more) at the Sacred Mosque (2:203), which is not the case for the ‘Umrah.
- There is no hunting restriction if one performs the ‘Umrah outside of the sacred months, except when it is performed alongside the Hajj during the four sacred months (5:95).
- There is no requirement to enter into a formal state of Ihraam if one performs the ‘Umrah outside of the Hajj season, but the state of Ihram is mandatory during the four sacred months since the ‘Umrah has to be performed in a continuous sequence with the Hajj.
- The Hajj starts at mount ‘Arafat, then the pilgrims have to stop at Al Mash’ar Al Haram (located at the bottom of the mount) where we glorify God, and then implore Him for forgiveness when we leave. We then perform the sacrifice and eat from the sacrificial meat, then shave our heads or shorten our hair and make vows ; we then perform a final tawaf around the ka’bah and an optional Sa’ee, followed by a two day minimum spiritual retreat at the sacred masjid (2:203) : All this has nothing to do with the ‘Umrah.
4. Where does the Hajj take place?
(48:24) He is the one who restrained their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Mecca, after having granted you victory over them, and God witnessed everything you did. (48:25) They are the ones who disbelieved and kept you away from the Sacred Mosque and prevented the sacrificial offering from reaching its legitimate place [of sacrifice during the Hajj]. And if it were not for believing men and believing women - whom you did not know - that you would have annihilated, and who would have caused you some harm without you knowing about this situation...: This is how God embraces in his mercy whomever He wills. If they had been separated (in two distinct groups), we would certainly have inflicted upon those who disbelieved among them a painful retribution.
The pilgrimage takes places in Mecca and surrounding valley, that is to say between the sacred Masjid in the city of Mecca and mount ‘Arafat, as we will see. 3:96 (cited in a few paragraphs) explains that the Sacred Mosque was the first temple in the history of mankind; 6:92 also calls Mecca “the mother of the cities”, as it was the place where Adam and Eve and their family first settled after being evicted from the garden of Eden:
(6:92) And this is a Book, which We have revealed full of blessings, confirming what was revealed prior to what he received in his hands, that you may warn the mother of the cities (Mecca) and all those around it. Those who believe in the Hereafter will believe in this [Quran], and will strictly observe their ritual Prayers (Salat).
5. Mecca, Bakkah, Ka’bah and sacred Masjid
5.1 The Ka’bah and the Sacred Masjid
جَعَلَ اللَّهُ الْكَعْبَةَ الْبَيْتَ الْحَرَامَ قِيَامًا لِّلنَّاسِ وَالشَّهْرَ الْحَرَامَ
وَالْهَدْيَ وَالْقَلَائِدَ ذَٰلِكَ لِتَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي
السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ
(5:97) God has designed the Ka’bah, the Sacred House, as a landmark for mankind, as well as the sacred months, the sacrificial offerings, and the garlands, that you may know that God knows what is in the heavens and the earth, and that God has full knowledge of everything.
5.1.1 The Ka’bah
The Ka’bah is called ”the house” (2:125, 2:127, 2:158, 3:97, 8:35, 11:73, 22:26), and God calls it specifically “My House” (2:125, 22:26), showing that it is “The House of God”. It is also called “The Sacred House” (5:2, 5:97), Abraham calling it “Your Sacred House” speaking directly to God (14:37), confirming that it is the Sacred House of God. Another of its names is “the ancient house” (22:29, 22:33), as it was “the first house established for mankind” (3:96). “Ka’bah” means literally “cubicle”, due to its architecture, and it is the focal point for mankind when it comes to the ritual prayer, the ‘Umrah and the Hajj.
5.1.2 The Sacred Mosque
The Ka’bah is located inside the “Sacred Mosque” (mentioned in 2:144, 2:149, 2:150, 2:191, 2:196, 2:217, 5:2, 8:34, 9:7, 9:19, 9:28, 17:1, 22:25, 48:25, 48:27). A very simple proof that the Sacred Masjid includes the Ka’bah and its immediate walled surroundings is that “the Sacred Masjid” means literally “the Sacred Place of Prostration”: People perform the ritual prayer towards the Ka’bah inside the Sacred Masjid. Wherever we are on earth, we are commanded to symbolically “turn our face towards the Sacred Masjid” (2:144, 2:149, 2:150), which is the “Qiblah” (direction [of prayer], mentioned in 2:143, 2:144, 2:145 and 10:87).
Isaiah 60 in the Bible shows very clearly that the Sacred Mosque is located in Arabia (Isaiah 60:6-7) in a city where the human race gathers around the House of God to perform the pilgrimage “flying in a way similar to a cloud, like doves towards their nests” (Isaiah 60:8, referring to the millions of pilgrims that fly to Mecca nowadays for the pilgrimage). There, they perform the ritual prayer “bowing down at the soles of Your feet” (Isaiah 60:14). It provides many stunning details regarding the ritual of Hajj, and shows for instance that “the gates” of the sacred Masjid are open “day and night” (Isaiah 60:11): It is a fact that the Sacred Mosque remains open 24 hours a day, and every single day of the year. This again implies that the Sacred Mosque is not simply the Ka’bah but also the walled area surrounding it.
5.2 Mecca and Bakkah
إِنَّ أَوَّلَ بَيْتٍ وُضِعَ لِلنَّاسِ لَلَّذِي بِبَكَّةَ مُبَارَكًا وَهُدًى لِّلْعَالَمِينَ
(3:96) In truth, the very first house [of worship] established for mankind is the one located at Bakkah. It is blessed, and serves as a beacon for all creatures endowed with knowledge.
In my opinion, Bakkah is not the old name for Mecca as often believed in traditional Islam. Quranically speaking, Mecca is the name of the famous valley which gave its name to the city (48:24). By contrast, we see in 3:96 that “Bakkah” is the name of the location of the Sacred Masjid. The preposition “Bi” in “Bibakkah” (ببكة) indicates that it is a physical location. We see in the verse that it is where the first temple ever dedicated by the human race to God on earth was built, by Adam and his family. The physical location called “Bakkah” is an extremely ancient name that has been associated with pilgrimage at least since Abraham, and probably long before, maybe starting with the first human beings at and after the time of Adam.
The Quran acknowledges the Psalms as the Holy Scripture revealed to the prophet David. We see in Psalm 84:4 that people who followed the religion of Abraham at the time of David knew perfectly well that “the valley of Bakkah” is the place where the pilgrimage takes place:
(Psalms 84:4) Ashrei yoshvei veitekha ‘od yehalilukha, sela. Ashrei adam ‘oz lo bakh. Mesillot be-levavam, ‘ovrei be-‘eimeq ha-Baca, ma‘yan yesheetuhu…yeilkhu mei-hayil el hayil….
Blessed are those who dwell in Your house; they are ever praising You, Selah. Blessed are those whose strength is in You. With pilgrimage in their hearts, those who pass through the Valley of Bacca, make it a place of spring…They walk from a height to a height (alluding to the ritual of al Safa and al Marwah)….
We see in the passage above that “the house” of God (called exactly the same repeatedly in the Quran as we saw earlier) is located “in the valley of Bakka”, where a spring is found (today known as the well of Zam Zam), and where there is a ritual where pilgrims “walk from a height to a height”, which is the famous ritual known as “Sa’ee”, referred to in the Quran in connection with the two heights known as the knolls of Al Safa and Al Marwah (2:158), which is a ritual we will explain later.
- Mecca is the name of the valley and city where the pilgrimage takes place. Mecca is also called the mother of the cities (6:92, 42:7), as it was the first city on earth.
- Bakkah is the name of the location of the house of God.
- The Ka’bah is the name of the House of God and the word describes its cubicle shape. It is located at the center of the “Sacred Mosque”.
6. The Sacred months of Hajj: When does the pilgrimage take place?
Contrary to the teachings of corrupted traditional Islam which restricts the Hajj to a few days during the month of Dhul Hijah, and defines the Islamic sacred months as the 11th, 12th, 1st and 7th months (Dhul-Qi’dah, Dhul-Hijjah, Muharram and Rajab), a careful study of the Quran proves that the sacred months of Hajj are the last four consecutive months of the lunar year.
6.1 How many months are sacred?
6.1.1 The well known months
الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَّعْلُومَاتٌ فَمَن فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ فَلَا رَفَثَ وَلَا فُسُوقَ وَلَا
جِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ يَعْلَمْهُ اللَّهُ وَتَزَوَّدُوا فَإِنَّ
خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَىٰ وَاتَّقُونِ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ
(2:197) The Hajj shall be observed during the well known months. Therefore, anyone who performs the Hajj during that time shall abstain from any intimate relationship, misconduct and quarrelling during the Hajj. And God knows full well any good that you do. And stock up on supplies, but, in reality, the most important thing that you need is righteousness. And fear Me, O you who possess intelligence!
Verse 2:197 specifies that the Hajj shall be performed during the “well known months”. The plural “months” (اشهر) in the verse implies 3 or more months by definition in Arabic. This proves right away that traditional Islam has perverted the ritual of Hajj, since the book of God states that it can be performed during 3 or more months of the year.
6.1.2 9:36: Four months are sacred
إِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُورِ عِندَ اللَّهِ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْرًا فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ
وَالْأَرْضَ مِنْهَا أَرْبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ ذَٰلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ فَلَا تَظْلِمُوا فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ
وَقَاتِلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ كَافَّةً كَمَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ كَافَّةً وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ
(9:36) Indeed, the number of months decreed by God is twelve months, in accordance with the book of God [since] the day He created the heavens and the earth; among them, four are sacred. This is the correct religion. So do not wrong your souls regarding this matter, and fight the idol worshipers in unison, in the same manner as they fight you in unison. And keep in mind that God is on the side of the righteous.
Verse 9:36 tells us that God decreed a twelve month system, four or which are sacred. It also suggests that it has been the case since the day God created the heavens and the earth, millions of years before Muhammad and Abraham.
6.1.7 The names of the 12 lunar months
According to Muhammad Shaykh, Muharram, currently known as the First month of the Islamic calendar, is a corruption and was initially called Safar 1. The second month was called Safar 2 and is now called Safar instead. In any case, it is obvious that the first month of the lunar calendar cannot possibly be called “Muharram” (Sacred), as there are only four sacred months in the lunar year, and they are proven to be the last four of the lunar year in the Quran.
The names of the 12 lunar months in Islam:
1 Safar al-Awwal صفر الأوّل
2 Safar al-Thānī صفر الثاني
3 Rabīʿ al-Awwal ربيع الأوّل
4 Rabīʿ al-Thānī ربيع الثاني
5 Jumādā al-Ūlā جمادى الأولى
6 Jumādā al-Thāniya جمادى الثانية
7 Rajab رجب
8 Shaʿbān شعبان
9 Ramaḍān رمضان
10 Shawwāl شوّال
11 Dhū al-Qaʿda ذو القعدة
12 Dhū al-Ḥijja ذو الحجّة
The gematrical value of the four sacred months (last months of the lunar year) is 1091 (Ramadan) + 337 (Shawwal) + 916 (Dhū al-Qaʿda) + 753 (Dhū al-Ḥijja) = 3097 = 19 x 163. This is an interesting result because the sign of 19 is closely related to the concept of time, as explained in the article on the “miracle of 19”.
6.2 What is “the day of the greater pilgrimage” (Yawma-lhajji al akbar) in 9:3?
وَأَذَانٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ إِلَى النَّاسِ يَوْمَ الْحَجِّ الْأَكْبَرِ أَنَّ اللَّهَ بَرِيءٌ
مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَرَسُولُهُ فَإِن تُبْتُمْ فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ وَإِن تَوَلَّيْتُمْ
فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ غَيْرُ مُعْجِزِي اللَّهِ وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ
(9:3) And [this is] a proclamation from God and his messenger to the people, on the day of the greater pilgrimage, that God is no longer bound with the idol worshipers, and [neither is] his messenger. Therefore, if you repent, it will be better for you; but if you turn away, then know that you cannot escape from God; and warn those who disbelieve of a painful retribution.
Muhammad Asad wrote the following commentary concerning “the day of the greater pilgrimage”:
“There is no unanimity among the commentators as to what is meant by "the day of the Greatest Pilgrimage". Most of them assume that it refers to the pilgrimage in the year 9H., in which the Prophet himself did not participate, having entrusted Abu Bakr with the office of amir al-hajj. This very fact, however, makes it improbable that the designation "the Greatest Pilgrimage" should have been given in the Qur'an to this particular pilgrimage. On the other hand, there exists a Tradition on the authority of `Abd Allah ibn `Umar to the effect that the Prophet described in these very words the last pilgrimage led by himself in 10 H. and known to history as the Farewell Pilgrimage (Zamakhshari, Razi); one may, therefore, assume that it is this which is alluded to here. If this assumption is correct, it would justify the conclusion that verses 3 and 4 of this surah were revealed during the Farewell Pilgrimage, i.e., shortly before the Prophet's death. This might explain the-otherwise perplexing-statement, reliably attributed to the Prophet's Companion Al-Bara' (Bukhari, Kitab at-Tafsir), that At-Tawbah was the last surah revealed to the Prophet: for, although it is established beyond any doubt that the surah as a whole was revealed in 9 H. and was followed by several other parts of the Qur'an, e.g., Al-Ma'idah, it is possible that what Al-Bard' had in mind were only these two key-verses (3 and 4) of At-Tawbah, which conceivably were revealed during the Farewell Pilgrimage.”
The above commentary illustrates the fact that traditional Sunni commentators are not only divided on the issue, but cannot possibly understand the meaning of “the day of the greater pilgrimage” because unreliable traditions other than God and His revelations (45:6, 77:50) keep them from comprehending what the Quran really says.
If we rely exclusively on the Quran, such divisions vanish, as the Quran is the book for which there is no doubt (2:1):
Sura 9 paves the way, right after the decisive battle of Hunayn (9:25-26) (which took place shortly before the sura), for the final victory of Muslims and final eviction of the polytheists from Mecca once the four month truce and ultimatum expires (9:28). The sura was revealed in the 9th year after Hegira (630 CE) if mainstream historical accounts are correct.
Therefore, “The day of the greater pilgrimage” (يوم الحج الاكبر = Yawma-lhajji al akbar) is simply and logically the very first day from which a four month truce had been decreed by God, corresponding to the first day of the four sacred months of Hajj. Sura 9 was thus revealed on the first day of Ramadan, 9AH (December 12th 630). More broadly, the day of the greater pilgrimage is therefore the day that opens the Hajj season every year.
The expression “day of the greater pilgrimage”, due to the comparative form “al akbar” (الاكبر), also separates the first eight lunar months of the year where only the ‘Umrah can be performed, from the Hajj season, which is the time for “the greater pilgrimage” by comparison: This is why it is correct to say that the ‘Umrah is “the lesser” or “small pilgrimage” in comparison with the Hajj which is “the greater pilgrimage”. Another way to say it is that since the Quran is fully detailed, it does not allow any pilgrimage other than the ‘Umrah and the Hajj, therefore the ‘Umrah can be called the “lesser” or “small” pilgrimage in comparison with the Hajj.
6.3 Why is the month of Ramadan cited among verses describing the Hajj in sura 2
To further prove our point regarding the Hajj starting with the holy month of Ramadan, let us cite a few relevant verses close to the only verse in the Quran which mentions a month by name, i.e. the month of Ramadan:
(2:158) Indeed, [the knolls of] Al Safa and Al Marwah are among the rites inspired by God. Therefore, whoever performs the Hajj to the [Sacred] House, or performs ‘Umrah, there is no blame upon him to go around the two of them. And whoever volunteers for more, then God is indeed Appreciative, Omniscient. …(2:184) A definite number of days [are designated for fasting]: Therefore, whoever among you is sick or on a journey will make up for the missing days at a later date; those who experience great difficulty [fasting] can substitute a ransom feeding the poor; whoever volunteers more, it is better for him; [but] fasting is better for you, if only you knew. (2:185) The month of Ramadan is the one during which the Quran was revealed as a guidance for mankind, [providing] proofs corroborating that guidance, as well as the ability to distinguish [between right and wrong]. Therefore, whoever among you witnesses this month shall fast therein; whoever is sick or on a journey will make up for the missing days at a later date. God wants to facilitate things for you and does not intend any hardship upon you, so you may fulfill the prescribed period and magnify God for having guided you, and for you to be appreciative.
(2:189) They ask you about the new moons: Say: “They are starting points to determine time for mankind, including the pilgrimage (Hajj). It is not righteousness for you to enter homes from their rear; on the contrary, righteous is the one who fears God and enters homes from their [front] door. Fear God, that you may succeed.
(2:194) The Sacred Month belongs with the sacred month: Transgression shall be met by an equivalent retaliation. Therefore, whoever commits a violation against you, [you are then allowed to] commit a violation against him in a similar manner as he transgressed against you. Fear God, and know that God is with the [God] fearing.
(2:196) You shall complete the Hajj and the ‘Umrah for the sake of God, but if you are prevented [from performing them], then sacrifice an animal that you can easily afford; and do not shave your heads until the sacrificial animal has reached its destination. But whoever lacks the means shall fast three days during the Hajj, and seven when you return, which makes it ten entire [days]. This applies for someone whose family is not in the precincts of the Sacred Mosque. Fear God, and know that God is severe in retribution. (2:197) The Hajj shall be observed during the well known months. Therefore, anyone who is going to the Hajj during that time shall abstain from any intimate relationship, misconduct and quarrelling during the Hajj. And God knows full well any good that you do. And stock up on supplies, but, in reality, the most important thing that you need is righteousness. And fear Me, O you who possess intelligence!
Why is the month of Ramadan cited right in the middle of so many verses that deal with the Hajj and its rituals, as well as the four sacred months of Hajj? Very simply because it is the first sacred month of Hajj, which confirms what we witnessed in sura 9 and defines the four sacred month in Islam as the last four of the lunar year.
Ask any Sunni or Shia Muslim: “What is the most sacred month in Islam?”. They will unanimously respond that it is Ramadan, the month of fasting, “during which the Quran was revealed” (2:185). Why do they then claim that it is not part of the only four Sacred months decreed by God in Islam?! It is because of corrupted hadiths that contradict the Quran and disfigure Islam to the point of not even knowing the real sacred months, and not even knowing that the Hajj can in reality be performed during four full lunar months.
Hadiths and religious leaders restrict the Hajj to only five days (!), between the 8th and the 12th days of the month of Dhul Hijjah, which is the obvious reason why thousands of Muslims have died in deadly stampedes over the past century. It is likely that hundreds of billions of Muslims will perform the Hajj in the future, God willing, as the Quran says that true Islam is going to prevail in the world. Would it make sense for God Almighty, who obviously knew how numerous we would become, to have chosen only five days to reunite the human race in His Holy temple?!
The Quran provides Muslims more than plenty of time to perform the Hajj quietly and peacefully over four full months, that is to say one third of every single lunar year. God allows 24 times more time to perform the Hajj than the current 5 days!
6.4 The reason why “Pilgrimages” in 28:27 is a synonym of “lunar years”
To finish this section let us cite the verse which shows that Moses performed the Hajj to Mecca. We are going to see that it also suggests that the Hajj season ends with the four Sacred Months months of Hajj:
قَالَ إِنِّي أُرِيدُ أَنْ أُنكِحَكَ إِحْدَى ابْنَتَيَّ هَاتَيْنِ عَلَىٰ أَن تَأْجُرَنِي
ثَمَانِيَ حِجَجٍ فَإِنْ أَتْمَمْتَ عَشْرًا فَمِنْ عِندِكَ وَمَا أُرِيدُ أَنْ
أَشُقَّ عَلَيْكَ سَتَجِدُنِي إِن شَاءَ اللَّهُ مِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ
(28:27) He (Reuel) said: “I wish to marry you (Moses) to one of my two daughters, in return of which you will work for me for eight pilgrimages; it will then be up to you if you complete ten; I do not wish to make it difficult for you. You will find me, God willing, righteous”.
As we see in the verse, people who lived in Arabia at the time of Moses used to count years in “pilgrimages” (حجج = plural of Hajj), that is to say in lunar years. The reason is pretty obvious: The pilgrimage season ends the lunar year, which allows people to count years in “pilgrimages” interchangeably with “lunar years”. This is why verse 28:27 implies in the general context of the Quran (especially in sura 9) that the sacred months of Hajj are the last four of the lunar year. “Eight pilgrimages” means that Moses agreed to work for his father in law for at least eight full lunar years, and that he could stop working for him after the last day of Dhul Hijjah (the last day of the pilgrimage season and lunar year), 8 lunar years later. I suspect that the scene described in the above verse took place in Mecca, near the well of Beer Sheba (as it is called in Genesis), which is now called the well of Zam Zam, right next to the Ka’bah. It is very possible that Moses arrived there towards the end of the Hajj season, that is to say the end of the lunar year, which would explain why Reuel could ask Moses to complete 8 (full) pilgrimage years.
6.5 Historical context of the revelation of sura 9
Given the crucial importance of sura 9 when it comes to understand the issue of the sacred months of hajj, and given the fact that it mentions the decisive battle of Hunayn, it is helpful to place it in its historical context to better understand it:
According to most Muslim historians, sura 48 was revealed right before sura 9. Sura 9 was one of the very last suras revealed and was only to be followed by suras 5 and 110. Our holy prophet Muhammad and the army of believers had performed the first post Hegira Hajj to Mecca the year before (8AH) sura 9 was revealed, as documented in sura 48 (Al Fath/Victory):
(48:24) He is the one who restrained their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Mecca, after having granted you victory over them, and God witnessed everything you did. (48:25) They are the ones who disbelieved and kept you away from the Sacred Mosque [for you to perform the Hajj] and prevented the sacrificial offering from reaching its legitimate place. And if it were not for believing men and believing women whom you did not know, you would have crushed them, and they would have caused you some harm without you [even] knowing about this situation!: This is how God includes in his mercy whomever He wills. If they had been separated (in two distinct groups), we would certainly have inflicted upon those who disbelieved among them a painful retribution.
Mainstream historical records date the first pilgrimage mentioned in sura 48 as Dhū al-Qaʿda, 8AH, (629CE), which is the third sacred month of Hajj, and it is obvious in the sura that we are dealing with an actual Hajj that was performed (and not an ‘Umrah as Sunni historians claim because they are blinded by hadiths!) especially because verse 48:27:
لَّقَدْ صَدَقَ اللَّهُ رَسُولَهُ الرُّؤْيَا بِالْحَقِّ لَتَدْخُلُنَّ الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ إِن شَاءَ
اللَّهُ آمِنِينَ مُحَلِّقِينَ رُءُوسَكُمْ وَمُقَصِّرِينَ لَا تَخَافُونَ فَعَلِمَ مَا
لَمْ تَعْلَمُوا فَجَعَلَ مِن دُونِ ذَٰلِكَ فَتْحًا قَرِيبًا
(48:27) God has assuredly fulfilled (صدق = perfect tense = action is completed) his messenger’s truthful vision: “You will indeed enter the Sacred Mosque safely, God willing, having shaved your heads, or shortened [your hair], and without experiencing any fear.” For He knew what you did not know, and, in addition, laid the groundwork for an imminent victory.
God therefore did fulfill in sura 48 the messenger’s truthful vision and promise that the prophet had been foretold, that is to say that the believers would conquer Mecca and perform the Hajj: Muhammad and the believers entered the sacred Masjid having shaved their heads or shortened their hair, that is to say right after having accomplished the sacrifice (2:196, 22:27-29). The first pilgrimage and initial conquest of Mecca was not a complete victory though, since sura 48 only mentions a “imminent victory” (فتحا قريبا) in 48:27, because the polytheists had not been dislodged from Mecca in order to avoid a blood bath that would have caused existing believers who lived in Mecca, and that the prophet had no knowledge of, to be killed in the process of a battle who would have been a final victory (48:25). Following the first Hajj and conquest of Mecca, sura 9 was revealed on the first day of Ramadan 9AH, that is to say on the day of the greater pilgrimage (9:3), shortly after the battle of Hunayn (9:25) which was a decisive victory against the polytheists (despite the fact that some of the believers had disobeyed God and his messenger by fleeing the battlefield at one point as described in 9:25). Following the battle, God issued a four month truce with the polytheists for the duration of the four sacred months of Hajj, announcing them as a punishment that they would be forbidden to come back to the Sacred Masjid in the future (9:28) unless they embraced Islam.
According to historical records, sura 9 is Medinan because the prophet did not perform the Hajj that year, Abu Bakr having been named by him as the Emir of the Hajj.
The prophet performed the pilgrimage the following year (631CE/10AH) and sura 5 was revealed on that occasion and was the next to last sura to be revealed according to most historians (the last one being sura 110 - surat Al Nasr - a very short sura of only 3 verses). Verse 5:3 states: “Today, I have completed your religion…”, because the final Muslim rituals and laws are provided in the sura.
7. How to perform the pilgrimage from a Quranic point of view
7.1 The state of Ihram
(2:197) The Hajj shall be observed during the well known months. Therefore, anyone who is going to the Hajj during that time shall abstain from any intimate relationship, misconduct and quarrelling during the Hajj. And God knows full well of any good that you do. And stock up on supplies, but, in reality, the most important thing you need is righteousness. And fear Me, O you who possess intelligence!
We see that entering the state of Ihram has nothing to do with wearing an unseamed piece of white cloth, as practiced in traditional Islam, but is about behaving in a righteous manner and “abstaining from any intimate relationship, misconduct and quarrelling during the Hajj.” “Abstaining from any intimate relationship” is mandatory anyway for anyone who performs a spiritual retreat in any mosque, at any time (2:187).
In addition, it is forbidden to hunt while in a state of ihram:
(5:95) O you who believe, do not kill any game while you are in a state of Ihram. Whoever among you kills any purposely, incurs a cattle penalty equivalent to what he killed. Two just men will judge over this matter, whether it be an offering destined to the Kaabah, an expiation feeding needy people, or its equivalent fasting (i.e. fasting a number of days equivalent to feeding a given number of people), that he may taste the consequence of his act. God pardons what happened in the past, but whoever recidivates, God will inflict His retribution upon him. God is Almighty, and presides over any retribution.
- If one travels to perform the ‘Umrah and the Hajj during the month of Ramadan, the first month of Hajj, he or she is exempted from fasting during the Hajj (2:184 below), unless he can’t afford to sacrifice an animal (in which case he or she would have to fast 3 days during the pilgrimage, and 7 back home, in accordance with 2:196) but should catch up the missing days of the fast of Ramadan after the Hajj at a later date anyway:
(2:184) A definite number of days [are designated for fasting] (see previous verse): Therefore, whoever among you is sick or on a journey will make up for the missing days at a later date; those who experience great difficulty [fasting] can substitute a ransom feeding the poor; whoever volunteers for more, it is better for him; [but] fasting is better for you, if only you knew.
For instance, if someone performs the Hajj during Ramadan and cannot afford to sacrifice an animal, he will have to fast 3 days during the Hajj, and 7 back home, but also will have to fast the days that were missed during the fast of Ramadan while traveling to perform the Hajj.
7.2 The Quranic ritual described starts with performing the ‘Umrah, then the Hajj
7.2.1 Verse 2:196: A historical misinterpretation
(2:196) You shall complete the Hajj and the ‘Umrah for the sake of God, but (1) if you are prevented, then sacrifice an animal that you can easily afford; and do not shave your heads until the sacrificial animal has reached its destination. But whoever among you is sick or suffers a head injury should as a substitute fast, give in charity or sacrifice. (2) Otherwise, when you are safe and able, whoever enjoyed [performing] the ‘Umrah in a continuous sequence with the Hajj, shall then sacrifice an animal that he can easily afford; but whoever lacks the means shall fast three days during the Hajj, and seven when you return, which makes it ten entire [days]. This applies for someone whose family does not live in the precincts of the Sacred Mosque. Fear God, and know that God is severe, in retribution.
The second part of 2:196 (starting with “Otherwise, when you are safe and able,…”) is interpreted in traditional Islam as a penalty of sacrificing an animal for someone who would perform the ‘Umrah right before the month of Hajj, then would perform the Hajj shortly afterwards, because that person would have broken the state of Ihram between the two.
In other words, such a person would have to sacrifice two animals instead of one according to traditional Islam, because he or she would have performed the ‘Umrah right before the time of Hajj. We are going to see that such an interpretation makes absolutely no sense if you simply read and analyze what is really written in the verse, and taking into account the Quranic context.
7.2.2 What is written in 2:196?
The above long verse is divided in two parts:
First part of the verse:
(2:196) You shall complete the Hajj and the ‘Umrah for the sake of God, but if you are prevented, then sacrifice an animal that you can easily afford (the context is during the four months of Hajj: There is no sacrifice if one performs the ‘Umrah outside of the sacred months, only the term “Hajj” is associated with a sacrifice in the Quran); and do not shave your heads until the sacrificial animal has reached its destination (i.e. the sacrifice on the way to the Sacred Mosque). But whoever among you is sick or suffers a head injury should as a substitute fast, give in charity or sacrifice (i.e. instead of shaving his head).
If you cannot perform the Hajj and the ‘Umrah (both of which are mandatory rituals under normal circumstances), whatever the reason may be (religious persecution, health, family issues, etc…), you can buy an animal that will be sacrificed on your behalf in the valley of Mecca during the pilgrimage, and it is only once the sacrificial animal will have “reached its destination” and therefore will have been sacrificed that you can proceed with the Quranic ritual of shaving your head.
Second part of the verse:
- It then logically explains what to do when you can perform the pilgrimage normally in the valley of Mecca. It is very obvious in the verse that the Quranic ritual starts with performing the ‘Umrah at the Sacred Masjid, directly followed by the Hajj, which are two distinct rituals:
…Otherwise, when you are safe and able (no one is barring you from the Sacred Mosque anymore during the four months of Hajj, or more generally when you can afford financially and physically to perform the pilgrimage), whoever enjoyed [performing] the ‘Umrah in a continuous sequence with the Hajj, shall then sacrifice an animal that he can easily afford; but whoever lacks the means shall fast three days during the Hajj, and seven when you return, which makes it ten entire [days]. This applies for someone whose family is not in the precincts of the Sacred Mosque (because they regularly, if not every year, perform the ‘Umrah followed by the Hajj during the months of Hajj: This is to make it easy for them to do so, so they don’t have to sacrifice an animal every single year if they can’t afford it). Fear God, and know that God is severe in retribution.
Just like people who are barred from or not able to perform the pilgrimage have to sacrifice an animal, we see that pilgrims who visit the Sacred Mosque obviously have to do exactly the same, unless they can’t afford the sacrifice and then have to fast instead, in the manner described in the verse.
The reason why we first have to perform the ‘Umrah is because it is a mandatory ritual just like the Hajj. It is the first step of the rituals in the valley of Mecca, and it takes place at the sacred Masjid during any of the four sacred months; we then have to perform the Hajj (which starts at mount ‘Arafat) in a continuous sequence, simply because we would otherwise break the divine commandments and sequence decreed by God for the overall rituals of the ‘Umrah and the Hajj. In other words, the reason why the ‘Umrah and the Hajj are performed in a continuous sequence during the four sacred months is simply because both are mandatory, and not because some people would choose to perform the ‘Umrah right before the time of Hajj and carry on with the Hajj, as regularly misinterpreted.
The fact that the verse is divided in two parts (“if you are prevented” and “when you are safe and able”) proves that the context of verse 2:196 applies solely to the rituals that take place during the four sacred months.
It is never mentioned in the verse that we are dealing with the ‘Umrah being performed before the time of Hajj. The idea of a penalty that would apply to people who would perform the ‘Umrah right before the months of Hajj, then break the state of Ihram and perform the Hajj afterwards, as is commonly misinterpreted in traditional Sunni and Shia Islam, has no Quranic basis whatsoever. Otherwise, it would have been written or explained in the verse, or in its context, and it is clearly not the case.
The fact that the ‘Umrah is directly followed by the Hajj in 2:196 shows that there is no justification to interrupt the rituals of pilgrimage described in the Quran (fully detailed according to the Quran : 7:52, 6:114, 10:37, 11:1, 12:111, 41:3), for instance by adding a non Quranic visit to the tomb of the prophet Muhammad in Medina right in between the ‘Umrah and the Hajj, as currently practiced in Sunni and Shia Islam. According to 48:24-25, the Hajj takes place in Mecca (which includes its surrounding area), and nowhere else. Visiting the tomb of the prophet during the pilgrimage is one of many signs that Muhammad has become, against his will, an idol in the eyes of traditional Muslims: Following hadiths other than God and His revelations (45:6) prevents them from understanding and following the pure teachings of the Quran. The pilgrimage shall be entirely devoted to God, and certainly not to visit the tomb of the prophet. Going to Medina should be at best for tourism purposes, if one has any interest in doing so, and never while performing the pilgrimage, as it would severely alter it by breaking the Quranic commandments.
In 2:196, we read: “This applies for someone whose family does not live in the precincts of the Sacred Mosque.” This means that the sacrifice during the Hajj, or fasting instead if one can’t afford it, is only mandatory for families who do not live in the vicinity of the Sacred Mosque. They can perform the pilgrimage every year if they choose to, but are allowed to perform the sacrifice (or fast as a replacement if they can’t afford it) only once in their lifetime if they wish, just like anybody else. This is another Quranic example among many that shows that God’s religion makes sense and is always easy to practice regardless of where you live on earth.
7.3 The ‘Umrah and the Hajj
Step one: The ‘Umrah at the Sacred Masjid
Right before the Hajj, it is mandatory to perform the ‘Umrah. It is the first step of the rituals in the valley of Mecca and takes place at the Sacred Masjid.
Step 2: The Hajj, which starts at mount ‘Arafat
After performing the ‘Umrah, we then have to perform the Hajj (which starts at mount ‘Arafat) in a continuous sequence (meaning uninterrupted by non Quranic pagan rituals like going to Medina to visit the tomb of the prophet, which is idol worship if done between the ‘Umrah and the Hajj), simply because we would otherwise break the divine sequence decreed by God for the overall rituals of the ‘Umrah and the Hajj.
7.3.1 The ritual of ‘Umrah
184.108.40.206 No time restriction
Although we see in 2:196 that the ritual of the
‘Umrah has to be performed right before the Hajj and in a continuous sequence
during the sacred months, the language of the Quran is divinely precise and we
see in 2:197 that the four month time restriction only applies for the Hajj. It
implies by default that the ’Umrah can be performed at anytime during the year.
220.127.116.11 The Tawaf
Before the Hajj is mentioned in 22:27 as well as the tawaf associated with it in 22:29, a first tawaf is mentioned in 22:26, which refers to the one associated with the ‘Umrah. In other words, it confirms the current practice that the tawaf must be performed both during the ‘Umrah, and the Hajj:
(22:26) And we then assigned to Abraham the location of the House for the following purpose: “You shall never associate anything with Me, and purify My House for those who perform the tawaf [tawaf during the ‘Umrah], and those who (1) stand, (2) bow down, and (3) prostrate [performing salât].” (22:27) “And proclaim the pilgrimage for mankind. They will come to you (O Abraham) on foot and on every lean camel; they will come from every distant mountain path.” (22:28) So that they may experience the benefits for themselves; and mention the name of God during the known days (an average of 118 days = 4 sacred months) over the cattle heads that He granted to them. Then eat from them, and feed the despondent and the poor. (22:29) Then, let them complete their prescribed duties [by shaving their heads] and fulfill their vows, and perform the tawaf around the Ancient House [second tawaf during the Hajj part of the pilgrimage].
Another way to illustrate that there are two tawâfs from a Quranic point of view during the hajj is the fact that the word “al Ka’bah” is symbolically mentioned twice in the Quranic text in 5:95 and 5:97, as we obviously perform the tawaf around the Holy Ka’bah. Also, the key expression “littâeefîna” (لِلطَّائِفِينَ = “for those who perform the tawaf”), written exactly the same way, occurs twice in 2:115, 22:26 and we will say more about that later.
One recommended prayer pronounced during the tawaf is in my opinion “Our Lord, grant us blessings in this world, and blessings in the hereafter, and spare us from the retribution of the fire” (2:201). In any case, the goal of the tawaf should be to glorify God using praises found in the Quran, for instance “Praise be to God, Lord of the universe” (2:1). The “talbiyah” (prayer recited during the tawaf by Sunnis and Shias) currently pronounced in Sunni Islam is found in a hadith reported by Muslim (“labbayka Alahumma, labbayka…” and the Shia talbiyah is almost identical except one word. The Quran forbids hadiths BY NAME (45:6, 77:50 etc…see hadiths the cancer of Islam on this website), therefore we cannot possibly rely on hadiths that are forbidden by the Quran and corrupted to know what to recite during the tawaf.
The tawaf is performing seven complete circles around the Ka’bah as the Quran does not say anything to contradict the inherited sacred practice. The Quran only specifies that the sa'ee is circling at least once al safa and al marwah because it has been a subject of conflict. It does the rectify the tawaf, therefore we must assume it is correct.
18.104.22.168 The tawâf coded mathematically
Some people may say, “Sorry but that’s not enough for me, I want to see the seven circumambulations during the tawâf directly in the Quran” or otherwise it means that it is an innovation. And what if the two tawâfs of 7 circumambulations each were coded in the Quran in a truly miraculous manner, would you accept the proofs? The Quran is fully detailed, and the following will prove it. The lesson that we should draw after what we are going to witness is that when a ritual is mentioned in the Quran, we shall not change anything to it unless there are clear indications in the Quran that it should be the case. This said, we have to bear in mind that Sunni rituals often contradict the Quran, for instance, the ritual of ablutions is precisely described in the Quran, and following hadiths instead is tantamount to idol worship. Another similar example is the fact that the Quran decrees only two raka’ât for every prayer as commanded in 15:87 (see the article “salât in the Quran”).
First of all, the tawâf is the main ritual of the « hajj » and consists of circling around or “circumambulating” the Ka’bah seven times to start and finish the rituals of the hajj (2 tawâfs × 7 circumambulations). The word "al Hajj" (الْحَج, the pilgrimage, GV 42) is mentioned 9 times overall in the Holy Quran and consistently with the same spelling (الْحَج, GV 42), let’s begin to analyze the gematrical value (GV) of the word "al hajj" :
الْحَج = V.M. 42 = 2 × 7 × 3
We will see later that only three words refer to the tawâf in the Quran (2:125, 22:26, 22:29), which is the possible meaning of 42 (GV Al Hajj) = 2 x 7 x 3. God knows best.
The word “al ka’bah” (الكعبة, GV 128) occurs symbolically exactly twice (5:95, 5:97) in the Quran to reflect the two tawâfs of seven circumambulations during the hajj:
Al Ka’bah (الكعبة), GV 128 = 2×2×2×2×2×2×2 = 2^7
Adding the above factors, we get 2+2+2+2+2+2+2 = 14 = 2 × 7.
So, how many times do we need to circle around or circumambulate “al ka’bah” during the hajj? The answer is that it is two tawâfs of seven circumambulations. No more, no less.
In 2:125 “the house” (“Al Bayt”, i.e. the Ka’bah) is called “a place of assembly” (مَثَابَةً لِّلنَّاسِ, GV 719 = 128th prime number = GV “al Ka’bah”). The gematrical value of “the house a place of assembly” (الْبَيْتَ مَثَابَةً لِّلنَّاسِ) is 1162 = 2 × 7 × 83. We can therefore read the sacred rhythm of the 2 tawâfs during the hajj (2 × 7).
There are only two verses which mention the pilgrims who actually perform the tawâf during the hajj:
وَإِذْ جَعَلْنَا الْبَيْتَ مَثَابَةً لِّلنَّاسِ وَأَمْنًا وَاتَّخِذُوا مِن مَّقَامِ
إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى وَعَهِدْنَا إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ أَن
طَهِّرَا بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْعَاكِفِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ
(2:125) And when We made the house a place of assembly for mankind and a safe place: “˹You shall take the place where Abraham stood as a place of prayer.” And We entrusted Abraham and Ishmael to purify My House for those who perform the tawâf, accomplish a spiritual retreat, and for those who bow and prostrate.
وَإِذْ بَوَّأْنَا لِإِبْرَاهِيمَ مَكَانَ الْبَيْتِ أَن لَّا تُشْرِكْ بِي شَيْئًا وَطَهِّرْ
بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْقَائِمِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ
(22:26) And we then assigned to Abraham the location of the House for the following purpose: “You shall never associate anything with Me, and purify My House for those who perform the tawâf [during the ‘Umrah], and those who (1) stand, (2) bow down, and (3) prostrate [performing salât].”
We find the exact same word “littâeefîna” (لِلطَّائِفِينَ = for those who perform the tawâf) in both verses. The fact that the same expression is repeated twice points at the fact that it is mandatory to perform the tawâf during the ‘Umrah which initiates the rituals of pilgrimage, as well as a second time to complete the rituals of hajj. Muslims have traditionally performed the tawâf seven times in a counterclockwise motion.
The key to find a mathematical confirmation of this sacred ritual is to focus on the expression “littâeefîna” (لِلطَّائِفِينَ, “for those who perform the tawâf”, GV 190 = 19 × 2 × 5). If we remove the preposition “li” (لِ), the expression which remains is “those for perform the tawâf” (الطَّائِفِينَ), where we have to restore the alif (letter “A”) that was assimilated by the preposition. The gematrical value of “al tâifîna” (الطَّائِفِينَ) is therefore 191. 191 is the 43rd prime number (a prime number is a number that cannot be divided by other than one and itself), and 43 is the 14th prime number, which is thus the first prime index that can be divided. Therefore:
14 = 2 × 7
This is in my view too astonishing to be coincidental and is one of the many signs which confirms that the tawâf shall be performed twice, circling “the Ka’bah” (GV 128) seven times each time.
Remark: I call what we are doing here “a prime number descent”, which is every time we have a prime number we have to get to the first prime number which is divisible. For instance, if we assign a sura number to every single verse of the Quran, we get we get a database of 12,472 numbers [209029 (sura numbers total) + 333667 (verse numbers total) = 542696] which provides the most complete picture of the entire numbering system of the Quran (suras and verses) as revealed by Allah. These 12472 numbers include 23669 digits, which is the 2633rd prime number, which itself is the 382nd prime number and first divisible number. Amazingly, number 382 is the gematrical value of “al Quran” (القران = the Quran, GV 382). In other words, this is a most profound hidden way to confirm the entire digit system of all 6236 verses and 114 suras of “the Quran”. Praise be to God.
Furthermore, if we add all suras and verses numbers from 2:125 to 22:26 (the only two verses which mention the word “al tâifîna”, GV 191) we get the following:
Addition of sura numbers: 252 = 2 × 7 × 18 = 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 × 7
Addition of verse numbers: 190876 = 2 × 7 × 13634 = 2 × 2 × 7 × 17 × 401
It is therefore a mathematical property that adding suras and verses numbers from 2:125 to 22:26 (the only two verses where the word “al tâifîna”, GV 191 is mentioned), we get a number that is multiple of 2 and 7:
252+190876 = 191128 = 2 × 7 × 13652 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 7 × 3413
Profound mathematical property: What is truly and purely extraordinary here is that number 191128 is the concatenation of numbers 191 and 128: 191 is the gematrical value of “attâeefîna” (الطَّائِفِينَ = “those who perform the tawâf”, GV 191), and 128 is the gematrical value of “al ka’bah” (الكعبة, GV 128)!
This extraordinary phenomenon not only symbolically confirms that the tawâf consists of 2 tawâfs of 7 circumambulations but validates symbolically the relationship between “those who perform the tawâf” (GV 191) and « al Ka’bah » (GV 128), the sacred house around which it is performed. Moreover, all this implicitly confirms that the numbers of suras and verses from 2:125 to 22:26 (the only two verses where we find the word “al tâifîna”) are divinely assigned and correct.
We mentioned earlier that the word “al ka’bah” (الكعبة, GV 128) also occurs symbolically twice (5:95, 5:97) to reflect the two tawâfs of seven circumambulations during the hajj:
Al Ka’bah (الكعبة), GV 128 = 2×2×2×2×2×2×2 = 2^7
Adding the above factors, we obviously get 2+2+2+2+2+2+2 = 14 = 2 × 7.
So, how many times do we need to circle around or circumambulate “al ka’bah” during the hajj? The answer is that it is two tawâfs of seven circumambulations. No more, no less.
To finish, there is only one additional verse in the entire Quran that refers to the tawâf:
ثُمَّ لْيَقْضُوا تَفَثَهُمْ وَلْيُوفُوا نُذُورَهُمْ وَلْيَطَّوَّفُوا بِالْبَيْتِ الْعَتِيقِ
(22:29) Then, let them complete their prescribed duties [by shaving their heads] and fulfill their vows, and perform the tawâf around the Ancient House.
Just like previously, let us isolate the verb from its conjunction “wa” (وَ) and the imperative particle “lam” (ل) in “walyattawwafu” (وَلْيَطَّوَّفُوا) to solely focus on the verb. We therefore get the verb “” (يَطَّوَّفُوا = “they perform the tawâf”) which has a gematrical value of 112:
112 = 2 × 7 × 16.
Just like previously, let us add the total of suras and verses numbers from the first (2:125) to the last verse (22:29) which refers to the tawâf:
252 (addition of suras numbers) + 190960 (addition of verses numbers) = 191212 = 2 ×7 × 13658 = 2 × 2 × 7 × 6829.
The total is again multiple of 2 and 7, which implies, since the total of sura numbers is the same as previously, that the total of suras numbers and the total of verses is, just like previously, separately multiple of 2 and 7:
252 = 2 x 7 x … = 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 × 7
190960 = 2 x 7 x … = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 5 × 7 × 11 × 31
The probability to have consistently and separately multiples of 2 and 7 (= 14) for the addition of suras numbers and the addition of verses numbers from 2:125 to 22:26 on the one hand, and from 2:125 to 22:29 on the other hand is 14 x 14 x 14 = one chance in 2744. It is therefore an extremely significant pattern.
Remark: We do not take into account the total of suras numbers (252) twice calculating the probability because it is the same result each time.
Purely in terms of prime factors composing the addition of suras and verses between 2:125 and 22:26 on the one hand, and 2:125 and 22:29 on the other hand we have the following:
The common denominator in the above is therefore 2×2×7, and not just 2×7.
2×2×7 = 28: It is noteworthy, and quite amazing, that 28 = 1+2+3+4+5+6+7, which is the straight addition of all 7 verses of sura 1. 28 can therefore be viewed as symbolizing the seven verses of sura 1, as well as the tawâf where pilgrims count from 1 to 7 when they circle the Ka’bah.
This said, 2×7 obviously remains the common denominator of all significant properties that we have identified thus far. Most importantly, the following miracle will permanently settle the tawâf issue, God willing:
The two tawâfs of seven circumambulations during the hajj: The ultimate proof
For those who will refuse to accept these signs, and will for instance question the fact that we need to focus solely on words without conjunctions and prepositions to decipher their meaning, just know that the Holy Quran is multidimensional just like God is multidimensional as He is Almighty and always exposes those who try to evade the truth. If we do include the preposition, articles and imperative prefix in all three expressions in the holy Quran which refer to the “tawâf” (without discarding anything) and calculate the total gematrical value of those three words, we get the following:
220 (GV لِلطَّائِفِينَ, 2:125+ 220 (GV لِلطَّائِفِينَ, 22:26) + 148 (GV
وَلْيَطَّوَّفُوا, 22:29) = 588 = 2 × 2 × 3 × 7 × 7 = 2 × 7 × 42
If this is still not enough for those who refuse to accept the miracle of the Quran no matter what kind of proof is presented to them (6:4, 6:25, 7:132, 10:97, 30:58, 36:46), just be aware that number 42, which is the factor associated with numbers 2 and 7 is no other than the gematrical value of…
“Al Hajj” (الحج, the pilgrimage, GV 42).
الحج → 1 (ا) + 30 (ل) + 8 (ح) + 3 (ج) = 42
Incredible coincidence or divine design, the sincere will appreciate.
This is why, as Muslims, we must unconditionally accept the fact that the tawâf shall be performed twice during the rituals of “the hajj” (GV 42) and consists of seven circumambulations each time. Sunnis and Shias corrupted the Quranic ritual of tawâf because Sunnis usually perform three tawâfs and Shias often four during the hajj, instead of the two decreed in the Holy Quran (2:125, 22:26). Since exactly three words refer to the tawâf in the Quran, some Sunnis may have attempted to claim that it symbolizes the three tawâfs that they perform. We witnessed that these three words have a gematrical value of 588 = 2 × 7 × 42 (GV “al hajj), and it is crystal clear that the Sunni corruption is EXPOSED in a truly divine manner by the mathematical miracle of the Quran. Truth and falsehood are like water and oil: They do not mix.
Remark: The fact that traditional Muslims often try to kiss or touch the black stone set in the eastern corner of the Ka’bah during the tawâf is no more than idol worship and is the result of their belief in “hadiths other than God and His verses” (45:6). The black stone is not even mentioned in the Quran fully detailed, therefore, there is no ritual associated with it. The purpose of positioning a prominent and visible stone in one corner of the Ka'bah is to enable pilgrims to count more easily every time they complete a circumambulation around the Ka’bah, and has strictly no value as a religious symbol. It will be important in the future, when pure Islam triumphs on earth God willing, to either replace or position the black stone much higher so that it is out of reach of idol worshipers.
22.214.171.124 The Sa’ee
(2:158) Indeed, [the knolls of] Al Safa and Al Marwah are among the rites inspired by God. Therefore, whoever performs the Hajj to the [Sacred] House, or [simply] performs ‘Umrah, there is no blame upon him to go around (the two of) them. And whoever volunteers for more, then God is indeed Appreciative, Omniscient.
2:158 makes it clear that the ritual known as “Sa’ee” (“سعى”, walking between Al Safa and Al Marwah) is only an optional (non mandatory) ritual that can be performed either during the ‘Umrah or the Hajj, or both. Since the the tawaf is mandatory and the sa’ee is not, it is logical that the sa’ee should be performed after the tawaf, if one wishes or is able to perform it.
Historically, the ritual of walking between the knolls of Al Safa and Al Marwah commemorates Hagar’s despair to find water as she had been left with her son Ishmael in a desert that was to be called later as “the wilderness of Beersheba”. “Beersheba” seems to mean “the well of oath” according to the book of Genesis, because Abraham made a pledge with king Abimelech giving him 7 ewe lambs, in exchange for his recognition that Abraham had dug the well which therefore belonged to him. The well of Beersheba is, in my opinion, no other than what is known today as the well of Zam-Zam right next to the Ka’bah. The Bible relates the story in the Book of Genesis, 21:14-21.
7.3.2 The ritual of Hajj
126.96.36.199 Right after the ‘Umrah, the Hajj starts at mount ‘Arafat
لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَبْتَغُوا فَضْلًا مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ فَإِذَا أَفَضْتُم
مِّنْ عَرَفَاتٍ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ عِندَ الْمَشْعَرِ الْحَرَامِ وَاذْكُرُوهُ
كَمَا هَدَاكُمْ وَإِن كُنتُم مِّن قَبْلِهِ لَمِنَ الضَّالِّينَ
(2:198) There is no blame upon you if you seek any bounty from your Lord. And once you have left from [mount] ‘Arafat, You shall then praise God at Al Mash’ar Al Haram (“the Sacred location”). And praise Him for having guided you, despite the fact that you were, before that, among those who were astray.
Mount ‘Arafat means “the mount of Knowledge”, because the essence of knowledge in the universe always comes from God’s revelations, and mount ‘Arafat is historically associated with God’s revelation since at least Abraham, the best example being that it is where the last sura was revealed:
(5:3) …This day, I (God is speaking) have perfected your religion, I have completed my favor(s) upon you, and I have approved Islam as a religion.
The prophet received the revelation of sura 5 in “Arafat during the farewell pilgrimage where he recited it, thus perfecting and sealing God’s revelation to mankind on earth.